Studies and researches were conducted by Nuffield Department of Population Health to find insights and reasons about the increasing death rate across developing countries due to Cardiovascular diseases. With respect to the Indian population, studies from the department spanning over years have shown the rate of increase in smoking tobacco among Indian people and its effects on human body. 

With support and core funding from British Heart Foundation, Cancer Research UK, and Medical research Council, the department conducted two primary studies in the South Indian states of Tamil Nadu (Chennai) and Kerala (Trivandrum) between 1998-2002. 

Chennai Prospective Study: A prospective study of half a million adults living in the city of Chennai (formerly Madras) arose out of discussions at the 1994 International Cancer Congress in Delhi about how to assess the effects of tobacco on health in different parts of India.

Trivandrum Tobacco Study: The Trivandrum Tobacco Study is a population-based study of 0.1 million urban men surveyed 2000-2002 and 0.3 million men from the rural areas surrounding Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram) surveyed 2002-2006. Using a structured pre-tested questionnaire, trained social investigators collected data on age, sex, tobacco use (smoking and smokeless), alcohol consumption, blood pressure, adiposity, household possessions, education and occupation. Follow-up for mortality occurs every 5 years by household visits with cause of death ascertained by verbal autopsy. A complete re-survey of 40,000 survivors will be conducted every 5 years.